Academic Development Chart

Preschool (Ages 3-5)

  • Language Skills: Developing vocabulary, beginning phonics, understanding simple instructions, engaging in conversation.
  • Math Skills: Recognizing numbers, basic counting, understanding simple shapes and patterns.
  • Motor Skills: Fine motor skills (e.g., holding a pencil, cutting with scissors), gross motor skills (e.g., climbing, jumping).
  • Social Skills: Sharing, taking turns, basic cooperative play.
  • Cognitive Skills: Identifying colors, basic problem-solving, understanding cause and effect.

Elementary School (Ages 6-10)

  • Language Skills: Reading independently, writing sentences and paragraphs, understanding grammar basics.
  • Math Skills: Basic arithmetic (addition, subtraction, multiplication, division), introduction to fractions and simple geometry.
  • Science Skills: Understanding basic scientific concepts (e.g., plant life cycle, states of matter), simple experiments.
  • Social Studies: Basic geography, community roles, national history.
  • Learning Skills: Following multi-step instructions, beginning research skills, organizational skills for schoolwork.

Middle School (Ages 11-13)

  • Language Skills: Reading comprehension, essay writing, advanced grammar.
  • Math Skills: Advanced arithmetic, introduction to algebra and geometry, problem-solving skills.
  • Science Skills: Biology, Earth science, physical science, scientific method application.
  • Social Studies: World history, civics, geography.
  • Learning Skills: Independent research, time management, critical thinking, beginning of abstract concepts.

High School (Ages 14-18)

  • Language Skills: Literature analysis, advanced essay writing, public speaking.
  • Math Skills: Algebra, geometry, trigonometry, calculus (depending on the curriculum).
  • Science Skills: Biology, chemistry, physics, environmental science.
  • Social Studies: Advanced world history, government, economics, sociology.
  • Learning Skills: Advanced research and study skills, preparing for post-secondary education or career, self-regulation and advanced critical thinking.


  • Individual Variation: Keep in mind that children develop at different rates, and this chart provides general guidelines. Some students may achieve these milestones earlier or later than the outlined ages.